Pankaj Tanwar
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# To Lower Case.

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Hey-yo people!

Welcome to yet another edition (day 20) of my coding diary. I am sure, you might be having some thoughts about what I do here. So, every day I solve a challenge, sharing some interesting approaches + my learning.

Well, let's jump straight to the problem statement for the day!

Problem of the day - To Lower Case

Tag - Easy

Given a string s, return the string after replacing every uppercase letter with the same lowercase letter.

Example 1:

Input: s = "Hello" Output: "hello"

I don't even need to re-iterate the problem. It's the simple challenge one can ever get. Hold on, I know it can be solved within seconds but trust me, we are going to discuss some really cool insights.

I have a couple of solutions for this problem -

The very first, simplest solution

class Solution {public:    string toLowerCase(string s) {        for(int i=0;i<s.length();i++) {            s[i] = tolower(s[i]);        }        return s;    }};


I am sorry, don't punish me for using the built-in function.

ASCII comes to rescue

class Solution {public:    string toLowerCase(string s) {        for(int i=0;i<s.length();i++) {            if(int(s[i]) >= 65 && int(s[i]) <= 90) s[i] += 32;        }        return s;    }};

Pretty straightforward!

Tip for C++ beginners: Use int() to convert char to decimal and use char() to convert, a number to ASCII Char.

I usually, struggle to remember the exact ASCII code of A, Z,a,z. So, I did this -

class Solution {public:    string toLowerCase(string s) {        for(int i=0;i<s.length();i++) {            if(s[i] >= 'A' && s[i] <= 'Z') s[i] += 32;        }        return s;    }};

Ahh, Some times I don't even remember the difference is 32. So,

if(s[i] >= 'A' && s[i] <= 'Z') s[i] = s[i] - 'A' + 'a';

Here is the hilarious approach to optimize it further.

As, to optimize the comparison, instead of using -

if(s[i] >= 'A' && s[i] <= 'Z')

we can do,

if(s[i] <= 'Z' && s[i] >= 'A')

So, the thought is, for every lower case letter, it will get rejected in the first check itself, of the if condition. One comparison saved! (drum rolls please)

I know I am being too picky here but that's how I optimized it further. Not to mention, my runtime beats 100% of the submissions.

One guy solved it using bit manipulation. Insane!

You might like previous editions of my coding diary